Every decision is risky business. Selecting the best time to stop and act is crucial. When Microsoft prepares to introduce Word 2020, it must decide when to quit debugging and launch the product. When a hurricane veers toward Florida, the governor must call when it’s time to stop watching and start evacuating. Bad timing can be ruinous. Napoleon learned that the hard way after invading Russia. We face smaller-consequence stopping decisions all the time, when hunting for a better parking space, responding to a job offer or scheduling retirement.
The basic framework of all these problems is the same: A decision maker observes a process evolving in time that involves some randomness. Based only on what is known, he or she must make a decision on how to maximize reward or minimize cost. In some cases, little is known about what’s coming. In other cases, information is abundant. In either scenario, no one predicts the future with full certainty. Fortunately, the powers of probability sometimes improve the odds of making a good choice.